Archive for November, 2010

Mark and OT

(Mar 1:1) The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God sort of Genesis 1 like.

(Mar 1:2-5) John’s crying in the wilderness fulfils OT hope of God doing a new work in the wilderness c.f. Isa 40.

(Mar 1:6) John is described in terms that recall Elijah – clothed with camel’s hair, leather belt around waist and ate locusts & wild honey.

(Mar 1:7-8) In Isa 40 the one who comes after John is God!

(Mar 1:8) OT prophetic hope was that God would pour out/baptize with the Holy Spirit.

(Mar 1:10) The heavens being torn open and the Spirit descending is eschatological last days kind of language.

(Mar 1:10) Does the dove point to Noah’s dove i.e. a sign of new creation?

(Mar 1:11) Voice from heaven "You are my beloved Son; with you I am well pleased." i.e. Davidic king & suffering servant c.f. Psa 2; Isa 42.

(Mar 1:12) The Spirit immediately drove him out into the wilderness.

(Mar 1:13) In the wilderness forty days tempted by Satan. Recalls the failures of both Adam in the garden and Israel in the wilderness.

(Mar 1:13) The angels were ministering to him. c.f. Psa 91:11-12.

(Mar 1:14-15) Proclamation that the time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand is eschatological.

(Mar 1:21-22) Jesus teaching the OT law and prophets in the synagogue.

(Mar 1:23-24) Unclean spirit (OT category) calls Jesus "the Holy One of God" which is what Isaiah’s favourite title for God.

(Mar 1:27) The obedience of unclean spirits and their being driven out is eschatological.

(Mar 1:32-34) Jesus’ power-acts of healing points to the eschatological fulfilment of Isa 35:3-5. The kingdom of new age is breaking through

(Mar 1:40-42) Jesus’ touching a leper ought to render him unclean but instead makes the leper clean (whole).

(Mar 1:44) Jesus sends the leper to the priest to offer sacrifice for cleansing so that the Law of Moses will testify to Christ.

(Mar 2:5-7) Forgiveness of sin in OT was God’s prerogative alone.

(Mar 2:11-12) Jesus’ healing the paralytic points to the eschatological fulfilment of Isa 35:3-5. Kingdom of the new age is breaking through

(Mar 2:21-22) The new wine of the gospel needs new wineskins of understanding. Cannot be contained within OT interpretations of Pharisees.

(Mar 2:23-28) Jesus restores the OT Sabbath to its original purpose.

(Mar 2:23-28) Jesus shows that the OT law is not intended to do away with God’s mercy …

(Mar 2:23-28) c.f. the example of David in OT eating the sacred bread when he was hungry.

(Mar 3:1-5) Jesus shows that the OT law is not intended to do away with God’s mercy by healing the man with the withered hand.

(Mar 3:7-8) Crowds from Galilee, Judea, Jerusalem, Idumea, beyond the Jordan and around Tyre and Sidon i.e. the whole OT kingdom of David.

(Mar 3:27) Eschatological – the strong man is being bound by Jesus and his house plundered.

(Mar 4:2) Jesus teaches in parables c.f. Psa 78:2.

(Mar 4:10-12) Jesus speaks in parables to obscure and hide truth c.f. Isa 6:9-10.

(Mar 4:10-12) Election – to some has been given the secret of the kingdom of God but others have truth hidden.

(Mar 4:30-32) The parable of the mustard seed reveals a slow growth of the kingdom that was something of a mystery to the OT prophets.

(Mar 4:37-40) In OT only God could command the wind and sea that it would obey him.

(Mar 5:1-5,11-13) OT concepts of uncleanness – Gentile country, spirits, dead bodies, bleeding, pigs. Jesus makes a very unclean man clean.

(Mar 5:22-42) Touch with a woman with bleeding (loss of life) & with a dead body ought to render Jesus very unclean but he makes them clean.

(Mar 5:41-42) In OT Elijah and Elisha raised the dead with ritual and prayer but Jesus just speaks a word of command.

(Mar 6:15) The crowd recognises that Jesus is a prophet, like one of the prophets of old.

(Mar 6:34) "they were like sheep without a shepherd" – OT language c.f. Num 27:17; Jer 50:6; Zec 10:2.

(Mar 6:41) Jesus is the good shepherd who feeds the sheep and a prophet like Moses in giving them ‘bread from heaven’.

(Mar 6:48-49) In the OT walking on the water was characteristic of God alone c.f. Job 9:8; Psa 93:4.

(Mar 6:48) Jesus was about to "pass by them". Phrase is used of God’s presence and glory passing by Moses & Elijah in Exo 32-34 and 2Ki 19.

(Mar 7:6-7) Jesus describes leaders with Isa 29:13 – This people in vain do they worship me, teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.

(Mar 7:8-13) Pharisees leave the commandment of God and replace it with the tradition of men.

(Mar 7:15-23) Jesus redefines OT concept of what defiles a man and makes him unclean – not food coming in but rather attitudes going out.

(Mar 7:24-30) Jesus shows that the division between clean Jewish sheep and unclean Gentile dogs is broken down by faith.

(Mar 7:31-36) Applying spittle to a man according to Law of Moses made unclean but Jesus’ spit makes clean and whole – healing of deaf.

(Mar 7:37) The astonished crowd testify that Jesus filflls Isa 35:3-5 – He does all things well & even makes the deaf hear & the mute speak.

(Mar 8:17-18) Jesus asks his disciples if they too are like the idolaters of Isa 6:9-10.

(Mar 8:22-25) Jesus’ two stage healing of the blind points to him as being the one who provides gradual spiritual revelation and sight.

(Mar 8:28-29) The crowds recognise Jesus as being in the line of OT prophets. Peter recognises Jesus as being the promised Son of David.

(Mar 8:31) The Son of Man must suffer, be rejected, killed, and after three days rise again c.f. suffering servant with Dan 7:13-14; Ps 16.

(Mar 8:38; 9:1) The Son of Man will comes in the glory of his Father with the holy angels and with power.

(Mar 9:1)Eschatology – Some will not taste death until they see the kingdom of God after it has come with power. The kngdom is now.

(Mar 9:2-3) Jesus on a mount takes on appearance of divine glory – clothes became intensely white c.f. Moses reflecting glory on Mt Sinai.

(Mar 9:4) Moses and Elijah testify to Jesus.

(Mar 9:7) A cloud overshadowed them (OT Shekinah glory).

(Mar 9:7) A voice came out of cloud, "This is my beloved Son" c.f. combines phrases from Psa 2; Isa 42 i.e. David king & suffering servant.

(Mar 9:11-13) John the Baptist was the Elijah prophesied in Mal 4 to come before the coming of God.

(Mar 9:31) The Son of Man must suffer, be rejected, killed, and after three days rise again c.f. suffering servant with Dan 7:13-14; Ps 16.

(Mar 9:43,45,47) Jesus describes hell as Gehenna the OT valley outside Jerusalem of perpetual burning of idolatrous sacrifices and rubbish.

(Mar 9:48) Where their worm does not die and the fire is not quenched c.f. Isa 66:24.

(Mar 10:1) Jesus preaches in the wilderness of Elijah – something significant is happening.

(Mar 10:5) Jesus says that the Law of Moses allowing divorce was to restrain the sinfulness of hard hearts.

(Mar 10:6-9) Jesus reveals the true intention of the Law of Moses relating to marriage i.e. covenant = forsake and hold fast c.f. Gen 2:24.

(Mar 10:8) c.f. Gen 2:24 "one flesh" – a physically accurate description of an unfathomable mystery of joy and glory unique in this age.

(Mar 10:18) "Why do you call me good? No one is good except God alone (OT claim). Subtly implies Jesus is God.

(Mar 10:19-21) Jesus says eternal life comes through obeying the OT commandments and following him.

(Mar 10:23-27) Salvation is impossible apart from an act of divine intervention i.e. camel, eye of a needle,, all things possible with God.

(Mar 10:33-34) Son of Man will be delivered over to the Gentiles (OT sign of divine judgment) …

(Mar 10:33-34) … condemned to death, mocked, spat in, flogged, killed c.f. suffering servant of Isa 53.

(Mar 10:34) After three days he will rise c.f. Psa 16:10-11.

(Mar 10:38) "drink the cup" i.e. OT cup of suffering i.e. an OT picture of suffering.

(Mar 10:38) "be baptized" i.e. overwhelmed and submerged under waters – not literal but a picture of OT suffering c.f. many Psalms.

(Mar 10:45) For the Son of Man came not to give his life as a ransom for many c.f. Isa 53:11-12 and references to ‘the many’ in these verses

(Mar 10:45) For the Son of Man came not to give his life as a ransom. A ransom is the cost of redemption (OT concept).

(Mar 10:46-48) Bartimaeus repeatedly identifies Jesus as the OT’s Son of David.

(Mar 11:1-7) Jesus riding into Jerusalem on a donkey fulfills c.f. Zec 9:9.

(Mar 11:8-10) "Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! c.f. Psa 118:26.

(Mar 11:12-14; 12:1) The parables of the fig tree and vineyard are similar to Isa 5:1-4.

(Mar 11:15-18) "My house shall be called a house of prayer for all nations" c.f. Isa 56:7 "you have made it a den of robbers" c.f. Jer 7:11.

(Mar 12:1; 11:12-14) The parables of the fig tree and vineyard are similar to Isa 5:1-4.

(Mar 12:10-11) "stone builders rejected has become cornerstone this was Lord’s doing and it is marvelous in our eyes’?" c.f. Psa 118:22-23.

(Mar 12:24-27) Jesus quotes OT – ‘I am the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob’ to demonstrate the reality of resurrection c.f. Exo 3:6.

(Mar 12:28-31) Jesus summarizes the Law as loving God and loving one’s neighbour c.f. Deu 6:4-5; Lev 19:18.

(Mar 12:35-36) Lord said to my Lord, Sit at my right until I put your enemies under your feet" c.f. Psa 110:1 i.e. Jesus greater than David.

(Mar 13:5-10) Precursors to end – false messiahs, wars, earthquakes, famines – birth pains. Persecution & world wide gospel proclamation.

(Mar 13:14-19) The dreadful destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. foreshadowing the end.

(Mar 13:14) The abomination of desolation standing where it ought not to be (let the reader understand) c.f. Dan 9:27; 11:31; 12:11.

(Mar 13:20) God will cut short days of tribulation that commenced after his resurrection for the sake of his elect – cut short by his return

(Mar 13:24-27) Tribulation then sun/moon/stars go dark c.f. Isa 13:10; 34:4 then Son of Man coming in clouds c.f. Dan 7:13-14 then

(Mar 13:24-27) then he will send out angels & gather his elect from four winds, from ends of earth to ends of heaven (post-trib rapture).

(Mar 14:21) The Son of Man will die as it is written of him in OT.

(Mar 14:24-25) This is my blood of the covenant c.f. Exo 24:8; Zec 9:11; Jer 31:31 which is poured out for many c.f. Isa 53:11-12.

(Mar 14:26) And when they had sung a hymn i.e. Psalms 113-118 which relate closely to the cross.

(Mar 14:27) The fleeing of the disciples fulfils Zec 13:7 – ‘I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep will be scattered.’

(Mar 14:34) And he said to them, "My soul is very sorrowful, even to death" – like an OT Psalmist.

(Mar 14:35) "the hour" i.e. hour of judgment like in OT.

(Mar 14:36) "remove this cup from me" i.e. cup of judgment like in OT.

(Mar 14:36) "Yet not what I will, but what you will." c.f. Jesus in the garden is very different to Adam in the garden.

(Mar 14:49) Jesus’ arrest in the darkness is so that the Scriptures would be fulfilled.

(Mar 14:62) "You will see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of heaven." c.f. Dan 7:13-14.

(Mar 15:1) Jesus being bound, led away & handed over to Gentiles is classic OT language taken into exile and being under God’s judgment.

(Mar 15:23) They offered him wine mixed with myrrh but he did not take it c.f. Psa 69:21.

(Mar 15:24) And they crucified him and divided his garments among them, casting lots for them c.f. Psa 22:16-18.

(Mar 15:33) There was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour – OT prophetic sign of judgment.

(Mar 15:34) Jesus cried with a loud voice, "Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?" "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?" c.f. Psa 22:1.

(Mar 15:38) Eschatological – the curtain of the temple was torn in two, from top to bottom.

(Mar 16:5) Typical OT language of divine encounters – a young man sitting on the right side, dressed in a white robe, and they were alarmed.


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Calvinism is not first and foremost a theological system but rather a precise "gloriously God-centred and heart-engaging system of theology"

The formative principle of Calvinism is not what so many imagine – the doctrine of predestination – but the glory of the Lord God Almighty! So, the fundamental question posed in Calvinism is not “How can I be saved?”, but “How shall God be glorified?”

source: http://www.cambridgepres.org.uk/res/calvinism.html

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Spirit and Soul

One’s spirit and soul do not refer to different parts of a person but rather refer to a holistic person viewed in slightly different ways.

spirit’ refers to one’s God-orientated inner life as viewed in reference to relationships.

‘soul’ refers to one’s life (breath and faculties) as a living being within creation viewed in reference to the body.

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The flesh

The Flesh is that aspect of the old creation/age associated with our bodies (although not the body itself) that remains within us.

The desires and appetites of the flesh belong to the old age and seek to assert themselves in our body (in all its physical, mental and emotional aspects due to the body’s continued weakness).

When we receive our resurrection bodies, our bodies will be physical bodies generated by the Spirit and will no longer have unregenerate flesh.

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The perspective of the Old Testament prophets was that the old age would give way to the messianic age by a dramatic pouring out of the Spirit of God.


Prophetic view

(Click pictures to enlarge)

In the New Testament the perspective changes. With Jesus there is an in-breaking of the kingdom of God with regard to his ministry, death, resurrection and pouring out of God’s Spirit. However the old age continues. The new development in the New Testament is that there is in fact an overlapping of the ages until Jesus’ return. This gives rise to the now and not yet tension.

NT view

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James and OT

(Jas 1-5) James is full of OT prophetic and wisdom literature concepts and language.

(Jas 1:1) ‘Servant of God’ is OT prophet description. ‘twelve tribes in exile’ Jewish Christians or way of describing church in OT language?

(Jas 1) Language consistent with OT prophetic images – wave of sea, tossed by the wind ,double-minded, unstable, fade like flowers & grass.

(Jas 1:18) Election – of his own will he brought us forth by the word of truth, that we should be a kind of first fruits of his creatures.

(Jas 1:18) Christians as first fruits links into the OT feast of first fruits.

(Jas 1:27) Religion that is pure same as OT – care for orphans and widows in their affliction, and to keep oneself unstained from the world.

(Jas 2) Condemns ‘the rich’ consistently with the OT prophets.

(Jas 2:5) Inheriting the kingdom is derived from the OT shadow of inheriting Canaan.

(Jas 2:8) Christians fulfill the royal law according to the OT, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself."

(Jas 2:9-11) Breaking the OT law at any point makes one a transgressor.

(Jas 2:20-26) The examples of Abraham and Rahab show that in the OT as now a person is "justified by works and not by faith alone".

(Jas 3:1-12) This section on the use of the tongue is similar to OT proverbs and wisdom literature.

(Jas 3:13-18) This section on wisdom is of a similar kind to the wisdom literature of the OT.

(Jas 4:4) "adulterous people … friendship with world is enmity with God" OT prophets likewise charge God’s people with adultery/idolatry.

(Jas 4:6) "God opposes the proud, but gives grace to the humble." C.f. Pro 3:34 i.e. another link between James and OT wisdom literature.

(Jas 4:8-9) Cleanse hands, purify hearts, double-minded. Be wretched, mourn, weep, laughter turn to mourning, joy to gloom. c.f. OT prophets

(Jas 4:13-16) We do not know God’s work of future providences. You are a mist that appears for a little time & vanishes" -very Ecclesiastes.

(Jas 5:1) OT prophetic language – Come now, you rich, weep and howl for the miseries that are coming upon you.

(Jas 5:2) OT prophetic language – Your riches have rotted and your garments are moth-eaten.

(Jas 5:3) OT prophetic language – gold & silver have corroded and will eat your flesh like fire. You have laid up treasure in the last days.

(Jas 5:4) OT prophets – kept back wages of the laborers by fraud and the cries of the harvesters have reached the ears of the Lord of hosts

(Jas 5:5) OT prophetic language – have lived on earth in luxury and in self-indulgence. You have fattened your hearts in a day of slaughter.

(Jas 5:6) OT prophetic language – You have condemned; you have murdered the righteous person. He does not resist you.

(Jas 5:10) As an example of suffering and patience, brothers, take the OT prophets who spoke in the name of the Lord.

(Jas 5:11) Job’s steadfastness, his happiness and the purpose the Lord brought about are to inspire patience in NT believers.

(Jas 5:11) Classic OT description of the Lord i.e. compassionate and merciful.

(Jas 5:12) Concern with keeping oaths and being truthful is a key OT prophetic concern.

(Jas 5:13) Is anyone among you suffering? Let him pray. Is anyone cheerful? Let him sing praise. c.f. OT Psalms.

(Jas 5:14) In the OT anointing with oil in the name of the Lord was a prophetic action.

(Jas 5:16-18) Elijah is an example of the power of a man of faith, a man like NT believers are.

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Hebrews and OT

(Heb 1:1-2) God ‘s speaking in the OT was at many times and in many ways through the prophets climaxing now in the son.

(Heb 1:2) God created the world in Genesis 1 through Jesus.

(Heb 1:5) Jesus as a man is the son of David adopted as the son of God c.f. Psa 2; 2Sa 7:14.

(Heb 1:6) In the OT the angels were commanded to worship Christ c.f. Deu 32:43 (LXX).

(Heb 1:7) Angels are winds and flames of fire c.f. Psa 104:4.

(Heb 1:8-9) Jesus is God-man upon a throne c.f. Psa 45:6-7 "Your throne O God therefore God your God has anointed you.

(Heb 1:10) Jesus laid the foundation of the earth and he will roll them up like a garment. Jesus is eternal c.f. Psa 102:25-27.

(Heb 1:13) Jesus alone sits at God’s right hand with enemies made a footstool for his feet c.f. Psa 110:1.

(Heb 2:1-3) If every transgression or disobedience to the law of Moses received a just retribution how much more a rejection of Christ.

(Heb 2:5-9) God has subjected the world that is to come to Christ c.f. Psa 8.

(Heb 2:10) Creation in Genesis 1 for Christ and by Christ.

(Heb 2:11-13) Jesus is biologically a man and so his people are his brothers c.f. Psa 22:22; Isa 8:17-18.

(Heb 2:16) Jesus helps the seed of Abraham c.f. Gen 12.

(Heb 2:17; 3:1) Jesus fulfils OT shadow of a high priest in service of God who makes propitiation for the sins of the people c.f. Leviticus.

(Heb 3:2-6) Moses was faithful in God’s house as a servant. Jesus is faithful in God’s house as a son and worthy of greater glory.

(Heb 3:7-19; 4:1-11) Warning from Israel in the wilderness. Hardening one’s heart and Unbelief means failure to enter rest c.f. Psa 85.

(Heb 4:8-9) The rest given by Joshua only shadowed the rest given by Jesus by faith.

(Heb 4:14-15) Jesus fulfils the OT shadow of a high priest in the service of God c.f. Leviticus.

(Heb 4:16) Drawing near throne of grace echoes idea of drawing near the throne shaped cover of the ark of the covenant in Holy of Holies.

(Heb 5-7) Jesus is a high priest greater than OT shadows i.e. became a priest by an oath of God, no has no sin, doesn’t die, sat down.

(Heb 5:6,10; 6:20) Jesus is a priest forever, after the order of Melchizedek c.f. Psa 110.

(Heb 6:1-2) OT elementary doctrines – repentance, faith, washings, laying of hands, resurrection, judgment.

(Heb 6:12-15) Promises are inherited by patient faith just like in Abraham’s case.

(Heb 6:19) In Christ one can enter the inner place behind the curtain in the heavenly places c.f. high priest and holy of holies in OT.

(Heb 7:1-3) Jesus is like Melchizedek – a king of peace and righteousness, a priest without beginning or end c.f. Gen 14.

(Heb 8:1-5) Christ serves in heavenly sanctuary of which the tabernacle/temple was only a copy/shadow e.g. make according to pattern.

(Heb 8:6-13) Christ mediates a better covenant i.e. the new covenant of Jer 31:31-34. Old covenant was not obeyed, could not make righteous.

(Heb 8:13) The OT first covenant has become obsolete and growing old is ready to vanish away.

(Heb 9:1-5) The OT first covenant’s regulations for worship and earthly place of holiness foreshadowed worship in Spirit and truth.

(Heb 9:6-9) The holy place was symbolic of the old age of being unable to enter God’s presence.

(Heb 9:9-10) The OT first covenant could not perfect the conscience of the worshiper but was imposed until the time of reformation.

(Heb 9:11-12) Christ appeared as a high priest of the greater and more perfect tent (not made with hands, that is, not of this creation)

(Heb 9:11-12) entered not by means of the blood of goats and calves but by means of his own blood, thus securing an eternal redemption.

(Heb 9:13-14) Sprinkling of defiled persons with blood of goats &bulls and ashes of a heifer foreshadowed the achievement of Christ’s blood.

(Heb 9:14) Christ offered himself without blemish to God c.f. OT sacrificial animals.

(Heb 9:15) OT concepts – mediating, new covenant, promised inheritance, redemption.

(Heb 9:18-28) OT first covenant was inaugurated with blood. Christ’s blood inaugurates new covenant and cleanses heavenly realities.

(Heb 9:28) Christ "bore the sins of many" Quote from Isa 53:12. Links High Priest to Suffering Servant.

(Heb 10:1-4) Law was a shadow of the good things to come i.e. the true form of reality – not able to make perfect, cleanse or take away sin.

(Heb 10:5-10) The OT pointed to Christ’s provision made in an obedient body c.f. Psa 40:6-8. This sacrifice is able to sanctify.

(Heb 10:11-14) OT priests stood daily repeatedly offering sacrifices. Christ offered a single sacrifice & sat down at the right hand of God.

(Heb 10:11-14) Sitting down at Gods right hand presents Jesus as a priest and a king c.f. Psa 2.

(Heb 10:15-17) OT spoke of Christ establishing a new covenant with laws written on hearts c.f. Jer 31:31-34.

(Heb 10:19-20) OT shadow illustrates Christ. We have confidence to enter the holy places passing thru the curtain i.e. through his flesh.

(Heb 10:21) Christ is the fulfillment of the OT high priest over God’s house.

(Heb 10:22) OT washings foreshadow the sprinkling clean of hearts from an evil conscience and bodies washed with pure water.

(Heb 10:28-29) Rejection of the law of Moses brought judgment of death even worse judgment for rejecting the new covenant.

(Heb 10:30-31) OT quoted to show that God will both judge the enemies of God’s people and save his people c.f. Deu 32:36; Psa 135:14.

(Heb 10:37-38) OT quoted to show the need to faithfully endure c.f. Hab 2:3-4.

(Heb 11:4) Abel worshiped God in faith same as NT believers.

(Heb 11:7) Noah became an heir of righteousness that comes by faith same as NT believers.

(Heb 11:10) Abraham in faith looked forward to the city that has foundations, whose designer and builder is God same as NT believers.

(Heb 11:11-12,19) Abraham and Sarah had faith in the God who raises the dead – same as NT believers.

(Heb 11:26) By faith Moses considered the reproach of Christ greater wealth than the treasures of Egypt – same as NT believers.

(Heb 11:31) By faith Rahab the prostitute did not perish with those who were disobedient – same as NT believers.

(Heb 11) Many OT examples of faith and patient endurance in the midst of suffering. NT believers are to emulate.

(Heb 12:5-11) Christians are to regard suffering as fatherly discipline from the LORD c.f. Pro 3:11-12.

(Heb 12:12-13) Christians ought to be encouraged by this view of suffering to make straight paths for their feet c.f. Pro 4:26.

(Heb 12:16-17) Christians are to avoid the sexually immoral and unholy example of Esau, who sold his birthright for a single meal.

(Heb 12:18-22) Christians have not come to terrifying presence of God on Mount Sinai c.f. Exo 19:12-12; Deu 9:19 but instead to Mount Zion.

(Heb 12:22-23) OT Jerusalem/Mt Zion only a shadow of the heavenly Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem.

(Heb 12:24) Jesus, the mediator of a new covenant, and to the sprinkled blood that speaks a better word than the blood of Abel.

(Heb 12:25) If no escape when they refused him who warned them on earth, much less will we escape if we reject him who warns from heaven.

(Heb 12:26-28) God will again shake creation in order to establish his unshakable kingdom i.e. new heavens and earth c.f. Ha g 2:6.

(Heb 12:28-29) Urged to offer God acceptable worship, with reverence & awe, on basis of OT revelation – God is a consuming fire c.f Deu 4:24

(Heb 13:2) Do not neglect to show hospitality to strangers, for thereby some have entertained angels unawares c.f. Abraham and Lot.

(Heb 13:5) The OT promises are for NT believers e.g. "I will never leave you nor forsake you." C.f. Deu 31:6.

(Heb 13:6) The OT promises are for NT believers e.g "The Lord is my helper; I will not fear; what can man do to me?" c.f. Psa 118:6-7.

(Heb 13:9-13) OT foods, altar, tent, high priest, sacrifices, rituals all point to Christ.

(Heb 13:14) NT believers seek the city that is to come i.e. new Jerusalem.

(Heb 13:15-16) Worship desired by God is continually offered up sacrifices of praise i.e. the fruit of lips that acknowledge his name …

(Heb 13:15-16) … good deeds and sharing with others.

(Heb 13:20) References to shepherd of the sheep and blood of the eternal covenant have OT Davidic and Mosaic connections.

(Heb 13:24) Saints is an OT description of God’s people.

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