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Archive for November, 2010

We live in the wilderness of this world, in the shadow lands.

There is no reason not to long to live in Eden where the glorious shadows will give way to an even greater joy.

Amen. Come Lord Jesus. Bring to consummation your new creation in the new heavens and earth.

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Happy were it, if puzzled and perplexed Christians would turn their eyes from the defects that are in their obedience, to the fulness and completeness of Christ’s obedience; and see themselves complete in him, when most lame and defective in themselves.

Source: John Flavel, ‘Opens the Covenant of Redemption betwixt the Father and the Redeemer’. John Flavel (1628-1691) was the son of a Puritan minister who died in prison for non-conformity.

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Romans 7–commentators

"Whatever else, this passage does not describe a struggle within the believer between his or her flesh and the Spirit but rather describes what it is like to be under the Law and in the clutches of sin and the flesh … The absence of the Spirit in this picture affirms that Paul is not describing life under the New Covenant."

(Gordon Fee, God’s Empowering Presence, p. 513)

"I do not then deny that Christians struggle with sin – I deny only that this passage describes that struggle. For while the believer continues to be influenced by both ‘realms’, Paul makes it clear he belongs to the new realm."

(Douglas Moo, Romans, p. 449)

"My own view is that Paul’s purpose in the text is not to delineate whether believers or unbelievers are the subject of the discussion. His purpose is to communicate the inability of the law to transform human beings."

(Thomas Schreiner, Romans)

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What does redemption mean? It does not mean redeemability, that we are placed in a redeemable position. It means that Christ purchased and procured redemption. … Did Christ come to make the salvation of all men possible, to remove obstacles that stood in the way of salvation, and merely to make provision for salvation? Or did he come to save his people? Did he come to put all men in a salvable state? Or did he come to secure the salvation of all those who are ordained to eternal life? Did he come to make men redeemable? Or did he come effectually and infallibly to redeem?

p.63.

Murray comments that the word "call" has more power in the Greek than in its English translation.

If we are to understand the strength of this word, as used in this connection, we must use the word ‘summons.’ The action by which God makes his people the partakers of redemption is that of summons. And since it is God’s summons it is efficacious summons.”

p.91

It is calling that is represented in Scripture as that act of God by which we are actually united to Christ (cf. 1 Cor. 1:9). And surely union with Christ is that which unites us to the inwardly operative grace of God. Regeneration is the beginning of inwardly operative saving grace.

p.93

The basic religious question is that of our relation to God. How can man be just with God? How can he be right with the Holy One? In our situation, however, the question is much more aggravated. It is not simply, how can man be just with God, but how can sinful man be just with God? In the last analysis sin is always against God, and the essence of sin is to be against God. The person who is against God cannot be right with God. For if we are against God then God is against us. It could not be otherwise. God cannot be indifferent to or complacent towards that which is the contradiction of himself. His very perfection requires the recoil of righteous indignation. And that is God’s wrath. … This is our situation and it is our relation to God; how can we be right with him?

The answer, of course, is that we cannot be right with him; we are all wrong with him. And we are all wrong with him because we all have sinned and come short of the glory of God. Far too frequently we fail to entertain the gravity of this fact. Hence the reality of our sin and the reality of the wrath of God upon us for our sin do not come into our reckoning. … We are not imbued with the profound sense of the reality of God, of his majesty and holiness. And sin, if reckoned with at all, is little more than a misfortune or maladjustment.

If we are to appreciate that which is central in the gospel, if the jubilee trumpet is to find its echo again in our hearts, our thinking must be revolutionized by the realism of the wrath of God, of the reality and gravity of our guilt, and of the divine condemnation. It is then and only then that our thinking and feeling will be rehabilitated to an understanding of God’s grace in the justification of the ungodly.

p.117

Justification is both a declarative and a constitutive act of free grace. It is constitutive in order that it may be declarative. God must constitute the new relationship as well as declare it to be. The constitutive act consists in the imputation to us of the obedience and righteousness of Christ. The obedience of Christ must therefore be regarded as the ground of justification; it is the righteousness which God not only takes into account but reckons to our account when he justifies the ungodly.

p.124

source: John Murray, Redemption, accomplished and applied (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1975). 

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John and OT

(Joh 1:1-4) In the beginning was the Word. All things were made through him. c.f. Gen 1.

(Joh 1:5-9) The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it c.f. Gen 1:3-4.

(Joh 1:6) John the Baptist c.f. Isa 40; Mal 3-4.

(Joh 1:12-13) Salvation – adoption by the will of God.

(Joh 1:14) The Word became flesh and dwelt among us c.f. literally tabernacled among us like the tabernacle in the wilderness in Exodus.

(Joh 1:14) Glory – full of grace and truth c.f. like God’s compassion and faithfulness in the OT.

(Joh 1:16-17) Grace came through Moses (i.e. the law) but Jesus brings grace on top of grace.

(Joh 1:19-27) John is not Elijah but rather the prophet speaking in the wilderness in Isa 40.

(Joh 1:29,36) Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world! C.f. Passover Lamb.

(Joh 1:30-31) John’s witness is so the messiah-God might be revealed to Israel.

(Joh 1:32-33) John saw Spirit descend from heaven like a dove and remained on him. i.e. Spirit anointed like Isaiah’s servant songs.

(Joh 1:32-33) John saw Spirit descend from heaven like a dove … does the dove have connotations of a new creation like Noah?

(Joh 1:45) Philip found Nathanael and said "We have found him of whom Moses in the Law and also the prophets wrote, Jesus of Nazareth."

(Joh 1:47,51) Jesus makes references to story of Jacob that Nathanael may have been reading under the fig tree.

(Joh 1:51) Jesus fulfills Jacob. "You will see heaven opened, & the angels of God ascending & descending on the Son of Man." c.f. Gen 28:12.

(Joh 2:6,9) Jesus turns the ceremonial water of the law into the wine of joy in God’s kingdom.

(Joh 2:11) John calls Jesus’ miracles ‘signs’ as in ‘signs and wonders’ which is used of Moses’ deeds in Exodus.

(Joh 2:17) Jesus’ cleansing the temple as it was written, "Zeal for your house will consume me." C.f. Psa 69:9; 119:139.

(Joh 2:19-22) Jesus himself replaces the earthly temple.

(Joh 2:23) Miracles in Jerusalem called ‘signs’ as in ‘signs and wonders’ which is used of Moses’ deeds in Exodus.

(Joh 3:3-8) Salvation – being born from above of water and Spirit (regeneration).

(Joh 3:14-15) As Moses lifted up serpent in wilderness, so Son of Man lifted up that whoever believes may have eternal life c.f. Num 21:7-9.

(Joh 4:11-14) Jesus is greater than Jacob because Jacob providing a well of water but Jesus provides living water that gives eternal life.

(Joh 4:11-14) Salvation – the gift of living water. In the OT prophets salvation pictured as a second Exodus e.g. living waters.

(Joh 4:20-24) Jesus states that worship not bound to Jerusalem temple but in Spirit and truth. Salvation from Jews and OT revelation.

(Joh 4:23) Salvation – a coming hour that is now here.

(Joh 4:25-26) Woman uses the Jewish term ‘messiah’ while giving it the Samaritan understanding of a prophet like Moses c.f. Deu18:15-18.

(Joh 4:54) Giving life to son is the second recorded sign in John’s gospel c.f. ‘signs and wonders’ which is used of Moses’ deeds in Exodus.

(Joh 5:8) Jesus’ raising the lame fulfils Isa 35:4-6. The new age is dawning.

(Joh 5:17-30) Jesus shares the same prerogatives as God in the OT i.e. working on the Sabbath, judgment, raising the dead.

(Joh 5:25) Eschatological salvation as a coming hour that is now here when dead will hear voice of Son of God and those who hear will live.

(Joh 5:28-29) Eschatological salvation – an hour is coming when all who are in the tombs will hear his voice and come out …

(Joh 5:28-29) … those who have done good to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil to the resurrection of judgment.

(Joh 5:39-40,45-47) Moses and the Scriptures bear witness to Christ and his glory.

(Joh 6) Jesus provides bread in the wilderness just like the Exodus.

(Joh 6:14) The people take the sign to indicate that Jesus was the prophet like Moses who was to come c.f. Deu 18:15-18.

(Joh 6:16-21) Jesus’ walking on the water in the midst of the storm portrays him as being God c.f. Job 9:8; Psa 29:10, 93:4.

(Joh 6:30-35) Jesus is the bread of life from heaven – the reality to which manna in the wilderness was but a shadow.

(Joh 6:36-37) Election – All that the Father gives me will come to me, and whoever comes to me I will never cast out.

(Joh 6:38-40) Preservation – Jesus will obey his Father and so lose none of those God has given him and will raise them up on the last day.

(Joh 6:40) The will of my Father is that everyone who looks on the Son and believes in him should have eternal life …

(Joh 6:40) … i.e. those who look are those who are given.

(Joh 6:44-45) Effectual calling – No one can come to me unless Father draws him. Everyone who has heard & learned from Father comes to me.

(Joh 6:48-51) Jesus is the bread of life from heaven – the reality to which manna in the wilderness was but a shadow.

(Joh 6:53-58) Salvation as eating the flesh of the Son of Man and drinking his blood in order to attain eternal life.

(Joh 6:64-65) Election – Some do not believe because no one can come to Jesus unless it is GRANTED HIM by the Father.

(Joh 7:22-24) Jesus is the truest teacher of the Law of Moses e.g. on Sabbath and priority.

(Joh 7:37) On the last day of the feast of Tabernacles after the water pouring ceremony Jesus stood up and cried out

(Joh 7:37) "If anyone thirsts, let him come to me and drink." i.e. Jesus provides water in the wilderness like the Prophets’ 2nd Exodus.

(Joh 7:38-39) Whoever believes in me, as the Scripture has said, ‘Out of his heart will flow rivers of living water. …

(Joh 7:38-39) … the Scripture reference is primarily to Eze 47:1-12 (c.f. Isa 44:3). Jesus has an interesting interpretation of Eze 47.

(Joh 7:40-41) Some in the crowd determine that Jesus is the Prophet like Moses c.f. Deu 18:15-18, other say he is the Christ c.f. 2 Sam 7.

(Joh 7:42) Scripture said that the Christ comes from Bethlehem, the village where David was? c.f. Mic 5:2.

(Joh 7:52) The religious leaders were wrong. Prophets did come from Galilee e.g. Jonah.

(Joh 8:2-11) Wonderfully the Law’s condemnation of death for adultery is overturned by Christ.

(Joh 8:6) Jesus bent down and wrote with his finger on the ground. c.f. Jer 17:13.

(Joh 8:12"I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will not walk in darkness" c.f. Isa 9:2; 42:6-7; 49:6; 60:1-3.

(Joh 8:39) Abraham was a man of faith in Gods promise. Jesus says his Jewish hearers are NOT children of Abraham due to their unbelief.

(Joh 8:51-53) Jesus is greater than Abraham because he can impart life. Abraham died.

(Joh 8:56) Abraham rejoiced because he saw the day of Christ and was glad.

(Joh 8:57-58) Jesus had seen Abraham because he said to them, "Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I am."

(Joh 9:1-3) Sovereign Providence – The blind man was blind not due to sin but so the works of God might be seen in him.

(Joh 9:5) As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the world. c.f. Isa 9:2; 42:6-7; 49:6; 60:1-3.

(Joh 9:6) OT law had spittle as defiling in Jesus’ case it makes clean (whole).

(Joh 9:39-41) "For judgment I came into this world that … to make blind see and the seeing blind – sounds like OT judgment and Isa 35:5-6.

(Joh 10:1-16) Jesus employs the OT picture of God as the Good Shepherd and applies it to himself.

(Joh 10:3-5) Effectual calling – The sheep hear his voice and he calls his own sheep by name and leads them out.

(Joh 10:14-15) Predestination & effectual calling- I am the good shepherd. I know my own and my own know me.

(Joh 10:16) Election – have other sheep that are not of this fold. I must bring them also, and they will listen to my voice.

(Joh 10:16) One people of God – I have other sheep not of this fold. I must bring them also … So there will be one flock, one shepherd.

(Joh 10:25-26) The reason some do not believe is because "you do not believe because you are not part of my flock".

(Joh 10:27) Effectual calling of those given to Jesus by his Father – My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me.

(Joh 10:28) Preservation – I give them eternal life, and they will never perish, and no one will snatch them out of my hand.

(Joh 10:29) Election & Preservation – My Father has given them to me and no one is able to snatch them out of the Father’s hand.

(Joh 11:4) Sovereign Providence – illness does not lead to death – for the glory of God, so that the Son of God may be glorified through it.

(Joh 11:25) Eschatological – "I am the resurrection and the life."

(Joh 11:43) Eschatological – Jesus cried out with a loud voice, "Lazarus, come out."

(Joh 11:47-52) Caiaphas prophesies unintentionally that Jesus should die for the many.

(Joh 11:52) Jesus dies not only for Israel but also to gather into ONE the children of God who are scattered abroad.

(Joh 12:12-13) The Passover celebration and the Passover Psalm Psa 118:25-26 and the palm branches apply to Jesus. Al l of Psa 118.

(Joh 12:14-15) The king riding on a donkey c.f. Zec 9:9.

(Joh 12:19) The Pharisees said to one another, "Look, the world has gone after him." Unintentionally prophetic.

(Joh 12:20-23) The first of the nations come to Jesus just as Isaiah had spoken.

(Joh 12:28) Then a voice came from heaven: "I have glorified it, and I will glorify it again." Like happened at Mt Sinai.

(Joh 12:31) Eschatological – Now is the judgment of this world; now will the ruler of this world be cast out. c.f. Rev 12; Rev 20.

(Joh 12:32-33) When I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all people to myself. c.f. like the snake in the wilderness.

(Joh 12:32-33) When I am lifted up from the earth will draw all people to myself. c.f. draw all nations to Zion (temple/Christ) as in Isaiah

(Joh 12:37) Though he had done so many signs before them, they still did not believe in him – same effect as people had to Moses’ signs.

(Joh 12:38-41) Isaiah foretold the rejection of Christ due to the judicial hardening by God c.f. Isa 6:10.

(Joh 12:41) Isaiah said these things because he saw Christ’s glory and spoke of him.

(Joh 12:46) I have come into the world as light so that believers may not remain in darkness c.f. Isa 9:2; 42:6-7; 49:6; 60:1-3.

(Joh 13:5-11) Jesus washes the disciples clean – washings and be made clean are OT shadows fulfilled by Christ.

(Joh 13:18) Election – I am not speaking of all of you; I know whom I have chosen.

(Joh 13:18-19) Judas’ betrayal of Jesus is God’s sovereign decree to fulfil Psa 41:9

(Joh 13:18-19) … and his use of the mean of the devil putting it into Judas’ heart c.f. Joh 13:2.

(Joh 13:34-35) A new commandment that you love one another – that was an OT command but new because "just as I have loved you".

(Joh 14:16-18) The sending of the Spirit will fulfil the predictions of the OT prophets of an outpouring of God’s Spirit.

(Joh 15:1-2,6) The pruning of fruitless branches to be burned is consistent with the OT prophetic language of judgment.

(Joh 15:3) Jesus makes clean not by Levitical rituals but by his word.

(Joh 15:10-12) Christians are to keep God’s commandments.

(Joh 15:12-14) The commandment to love has a new expression – to love in a way that emulates Christ.

(Joh 15:15) OT prophets are like servants. Christians are like friends having a fuller revelation from Jesus.

(Joh 15:25) OT Law predicted rejection of Christ: what is written in their Law: ‘They hated me without a cause.’ c.f. Psa 35:19; 69:4.

(Joh 16:33) "In the world you will have tribulation but I have overcome the world." John says the same thing in Revelation 1-3.

(Joh 17:2) Election – Jesus gives eternal life to all whom the Father has given him.

(Joh 17:6) Election – Jesus has revealed the Father to God’s people who belonged to God whom he gave to Jesus.

(Joh 17:12) Judas is lost to fulfil the Scripture to bring about God’s glory.

(Joh 17:15) I do not ask that you take them out of the world (and tribulation) but that you keep them (preserve them through tribulation).

(Joh 17:24) Election – the Father has given some people to Jesus.

(Joh 18:6) When Jesus said to them, "I am he," they drew back and fell to the ground. C.f. OT encounters with God or his messengers.

(Joh 18:8-9) Jesus’ order to let his disciples go fulfils the word that he had spoken: "Of those whom you gave me I have lost not one."

(Joh 18:11) Shall I not drink the cup that the Father has given me? i.e. OT cup of judgment.

(Joh 19:10-11) Sovereign Providence – Pilate only has authority over Jesus because it has been given to him by God.

(Joh 19:23-24) The dividing of garments fulfils Psa 22:18.

(Joh 19:28-29) Jesus’ thirst and being given sour wine fulfils Psa 69:21; 22:15.

(Joh 19:31-33,36) Jesus’ bones not being broken fulfils Exo 12:46; Num 9:12; Psa 34:20.

(Joh 19:34-37) Jesus’ side being pierced with a spear fulfils Zec 12:10.

(Joh 20:9) The OT Scriptures foretold that the Christ would rise from the dead e.g. Psa 16; Isa 53.

(Joh 20:30-31) Jesus did many other signs in the presence of the disciples. Signs are used in OT of Exodus saving events.

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George Whitefield wrote in a letter: ‘Two things I would earnestly recommend to your constant study: the book of God, and your own heart.

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(1Pe 1-5) Lots of examples of OT descriptions of Israel being applied to Church because church is the one continued people of God from OT.

(1Pe 1:1) Christians are called by an OT description of Israel i.e. those who are elect exiles of the dispersion.

(1Pe 1:2) Elect according to foreknowledge (fore-knowing-love) of God, in sanctification of Spirit, for obedience to Jesus and …

(1Pe 1:2) sprinkling of his blood refers to OT cleansing by being sprinkled with the blood of a sacrifice.

(1Pe 1:4) "inheritance that is imperishable, undefiled, unfading, kept in heaven" – inheritance like Canaan but New Jerusalem from heaven.

(1Pe 1:7,13) Eschatology – second coming of Jesus is called his apokalupsis.

(1Pe 1:10-12) The OT prophets inquired carefully inquiring what person or time the Spirit of CHRIST in them was indicating …

(1Pe 1:10-12) … when he predicted the sufferings of Christ and the subsequent glories.

(1Pe 1:14-17) Christian behavior is on same basis as Israel at Sinai – "You shall be holy, for I am holy." c.f. Lev 11:44,45; 19:2; 20:7.

(1Pe 1:17) Our time on earth is called "the time of your exile" – OT language.

(1Pe 1:18-19) Redeemed with the precious blood of Christ, like that of a lamb without blemish or spot c.f. OT sacrifices.

(1Pe 1:20) Jesus was foreknown (fore-known-loved) before the foundation of the world but was made manifest in the last times.

(1Pe 1:24-25) Peter again bases his ethical exhortation on the OT c.f. Isa 40:6-8 – a very messianic chapter of the new age.

(1Pe 2:4-6) Jesus is a living stone rejected by men but the cornerstone of a God-built temple made of living stones (people) c.f. Isa 28:16.

(1Pe 2:5) Christians are the new restored temple, priesthood and acceptable sacrifices.

(1Pe 2:7-8) Sovereignty – Some people stumble over stone because they disobey the word as they were destined to do c.f. Psa 118:22; Isa 8:14

(1Pe 2:9) Christians = chosen race, royal priesthood, holy nation etc. Peter applies OT description of Israel to Church c.f. Exo 19:5-6.

(1Pe 2:10) Once not a people, but now God’s people; once you had not received mercy, but now you have received mercy. c.f. Hos 1:9-10; 2:23

(1Pe 2:11) "as sojourners and exiles" – OT description of Patriarchs and Israel.

(1Pe 2:12) Second coming called "the day of visitation" – a very OT description of God coming to act e.g. in Exodus or in judgment.

(1Pe 2:13-14) Sovereignty -God sets up secular governments.

(1Pe 2:16) OT description – "as servants of God".

(1Pe 2:22-23) He committed no sin, neither was deceit found in his mouth i.e. insight of OT prophets c.f. Isa 53:9.

(1Pe 2:24) He himself bore our sins in his body on the tree c.f. Deu 21:22-23. By his wounds you have been healed c.f. Isa 53:5-6.

(1Pe 2:25) "the Shepherd" – Psa 23:1-3, Psa 80:1; Son 1:7-8; Isa 40:11; Eze 34:11-16, Eze 34:23-24, Eze 37:24; Zec 13:7.

(1Pe 3:4-6) Sarah is an OT model of how Christian women should live.

(1Pe 3:7) Women as co-heirs – inheritance is OT shadow description but now women are co-heirs.

(1Pe 3:9-12) Again Peter uses the OT as the basis for Christian ethical living c.f. Psa 34:12-16.

(1Pe 3:19-20) Christ preached (through the Spirit in the prophet Noah) to the people (spirits) who are now in Hades (prison).

(1Pe 3:20-21) The waters of Noah’s flood involved both judgment and salvation (a passing though) – this corresponds to Christian baptism.

(1Pe 4:5) Eschatology – final judgment i.e. him who is ready to judge the living and the dead.

(1Pe 4:13; 5:1) Second coming is Jesus’ glory being revealed (apokalupsis).

(1Pe 4:18) "If the righteous is scarcely saved, what will become of the ungodly and the sinner?" c.f. Pro 11:31.

(1Pe 5:4) Second Coming – chief Shepherd c.f. Psa 23:1-3, Psa 80:1; Son 1:7-8; Isa 40:11; Eze 34:11-16, Eze 34:23-24, Eze 37:24; Zec 13:7.

(1Pe 5:5) Christian ethical instruction based on OT c.f. Pro 3:34. OT still applies to people of God empowered to obey it through the Spirit

(1Pe 5:10) Salvation & election – God of all grace, who has called you will himself restore, confirm, strengthen, establish.

(1Pe 5:13) The chosen assembly who is at Babylon … OT description of Israel in Babylon now applied to Church in the world.

(2Pe 1:5-10) Make your calling and election sure by faith, virtue, knowledge, self-control, steadfastness, godliness, brotherly affection.

(2Pe 1:16) Jesus’ earthly ministry described as dunamis (power) and parousia (coming).

(2Pe 1:17) Jesus seen in midst of Shekinah Glory. "This is my beloved Son (Psa 2) with whom I am well pleased (Isa 42).

(2Pe 1:19-21) OT prophets spoke of Christ.

(2Pe 1:19) Jesus’ second coming compared to the day dawning and the morning star rising c.f. Num 24:17; Rev 22:16

(2Pe 2:1-3) Just as in the OT there were false prophets so also in the NT.

(2Pe 2:4) God’s casting fallen angels into Tartarus & in chains in gloomy darkness to be kept until judgment is a sign of future judgment.

(2Pe 2:5-6) God’s flooding the ancient world and causing Sodom & Gomorrah to become extinct is an example of future judgment.

(2Pe 2:5-9) God’s preserving Noah, a herald of righteousness, and Lot shows that the Lord is able to rescue the godly from trials.

(2Pe 2:15-16) False teachers compared to Balaam the son of Beor.

(2Pe 2:17) False teachers are waterless springs and mists driven by a storm. For them the gloom of utter darkness has been reserved.

(2Pe 2:22) False teachers c.f. Pro 26:11: "The dog returns to its own vomit, and sow, after washing herself, returns to wallow in the mire."

(2Pe 3:4-7) Scoffers forget the world was once destroyed by water at God’s word and that by a word the world will be destroyed by fire.

(2Pe 3:7,10-12) The day of the Lord will come like a thief, and then the heavens will pass away with a roar and be burned up & dissolved …

(2Pe 3:7,10-12) … and the earth and the works that are done on it will be exposed.

(2Pe 3:13) But according to his promise we are waiting for new heavens and a new earth in which righteousness dwells.

(2Pe 3:14) Be diligent to be found by him without spot or blemish i.e. like a perfect animal sacrifice.

(2Pe 3:15-16) Peter places Paul’s letters on the same level as the OT Scriptures.

(Jud 1:1) Election & Preservation of the saints – called and loved in God the Father and kept for Jesus Christ.

(Jud 1:3) Saints – OT description of the people of God.

(Jud 1:5) Jesus saved a people out of the land of Egypt but afterwards destroyed those who did not believe.

(Jud 1:6) God’s casting fallen angels into Tartarus, putting them in chains in gloomy darkness to be kept is a sign of future judgment.

(Jud 1:7) Sodom and Gomorrah serve as an example by undergoing a punishment of eternal fire.

(Jud 1:8-10) A strange story of the archangel Michael, contending with the devil and disputing about the body of Moses.

(Jud 1:11) False prophets compared with the way of Cain, Balaam’s error and Korah’s rebellion.

(Jud 1:12) Judgment using OT pictures – waterless clouds swept along by winds; fruitless trees; in late autumn, twice dead, uprooted

(Jud 1:13) wild waves of the sea casting up the foam; wandering stars, for whom the gloom of utter darkness has been reserved forever.

(Jud 1:14-15) Enoch prophesied Jesus’ coming c.f. 1 Enoch. 1:9 The Lord to come with ten thousands of his holy ones to execute judgment.

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